The crown is usually roughly conical and quite dense. Also like willows, leaf buds contain … & A.Gray ex Hook) Brayshaw, (POP-yu-lus ball-sum-IF-er-uh subspecies tri-ko-KAR-pa). Beavers find it most palatable and use it for dam building. Seeds ripen late May to July. southcentral alaska. Although not a tree of particular beauty, the black cottonwood is one of the most easily recognized of our broadleaved trees. Sometimes, the roots can even damage the foundations of buildings by drying out the soil. Value Class Food black bears in anchorage, alaska. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. Buds are sticky with resin and are fragrant. - black cottonwood stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Where seedlings become established in great numbers, they thin out naturally by age five because the weaker seedlings of this shade-intolerant species are suppressed. Picea glau­ca. Due to its high levels of rooting hormones, P. trichocarpa sprouts readily. Black Cottonwood is also a favorite nesting or perching tree for many bird species (Bald Eagle, owls, ospreys, hawks, hummingbirds, woodpeckers, etc.). The wood has a light coloring and a straight grain. Seeds are numerous and widely dispersed because of their cottony tufts, enabling the species to colonize even burn sites, if Although highly viable, longevity of P. trichocarpa seed under natural conditions may be as short as two weeks to a month. Last measured in April, 2008 this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points Populus trichocarpa has been one of the most successful introductions of trees to the otherwise almost treeless Faroe Islands. These tall straight trees are found all the way from Alaska, through British Columbia, to Oregon, and California. These scientific names are now considered synonymous with P. trichocarpa: Ewing, Susan. Key words: Alaska, Black Bear, Black Cottonwood, foraging behavior, Populus trichocarpa, Ursus americanus ***** Black Bears (Ursus americanus) are excellent tree-climbers. Cottonwoods are typically very tall and large trees and are the largest popular species in the Americas. The fruits are hairy, rounded, 3-part capsules that split to release numerous cottony seeds that float through the air. Rabbits and hares eat the bark. It is rarely found above 4,500 feet and is common in the Yosemite Valley, Wawona, and Hetch Hetchy areas where it grows along streams or in moist meadows. Pojar, J. Other notes. Wet bottomlands of rivers and major streams frequently provide such conditions, particularly where bare soil has been exposed or new soil laid down. Trees Live Here. Scattered small populations have been noted in southeastern Alberta, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, western Wyoming, Utah, and Nevada. Black cottonwood has low drought tolerance; it is flood-tolerant but Considering the economic importance of wood and wood products, the availability[12] of a tree genome was necessary. Refe… Juneau Tree Wal… Black Cottonwoo… Black Cottonwood. In the Landscape: Black Cottonwood is not a good choice for most gardens. The bark can become hard enough to cause sparks when cut with a chainsaw. Abundant seed crops are usually produced every year. It grows on a variety Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is be useful for plant propagation. Western Maidenhair Fern, Adiantum aleuticum. Variable nitrogen fixation in wild Populus. The Great Alaska Nature Factbook. The petiole is reddish. Black cottonwood is … They occur on upper river terraces, large glacial moraines, and gentle hillslopes [ 5, 8, 18, 26, 28, 39 ]. Known also as balsam cottonwood, western balsam poplar, and California poplar, it grows primarily on moist sites west of the Rocky Mountains. Betu­la papyrifera. Description of Values. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Ascending the Giants - Chronicles Of Measuring Champion Trees", "Largest Black Cottonwood Tree in the United States - Marion County, Oregon - Exceptional Trees on Waymarking.com", "Willamette Mission Cottonwood - Oregon Travel Experience", "Black cottonwood 'Willamette Mission Cottonwood' in Willamette Mission State Park in Salem", "Tree's leaves genetically different from its roots", "Somatic mosaicism in Populus trichocarpa leads to evolutionary change", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Populus_trichocarpa&oldid=997465587, Trees of the West Coast of the United States, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Articles needing additional references from November 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Doty, S. L., Sher, A. W., Fleck, N. D., Khorasani, M., Bumgarner, R. E., Khan, Z., ... & DeLuca, T. H. (2016). Bark: Smooth and gray on young trees. Black cottonwood trees (Populus trichocarpa) in the United States. • Occurs with whiplash and yellow willow. The numerous fluffy seeds of Black Cottonwood resemble snowfall in summer. The roots are however invasive, and it can damage the foundations of buildings on shrinkable clay soils if planted nearby (Mitchel 1996). Artists and crafts-people use the bark in carvings. From the photos, I would think it might be a different species. The leaves are 7–20 cm long with a glossy, dark green upper side and glaucous, light grey-green underside; larger leaves, up to 30 cm long, may be produced on stump sprouts and very vigorous young trees. It is a parent of fast-growing hybrid poplars such as P. trichocarpa x p. deltoides, which are being grown specifically for paper products and biofuels. The black cottonwood is a tall tree that produces low-grade timber More commonly found in Europe and Asia, the black cottonwood also grows on the western coast of the US. Pop­u­lus balsamifera. Check out our black cottonwood selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops. The bark comes from trees that have been dead for five to six years. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) • Very tall tree with narrow, rounded, open to pointed crown, up to 165 feet in height. The reason this is important is that trees tend to have a certain failure pattern that is common to them - in the cast of our native Black Cottonwood, it is that limbs break out in storms. Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood,[1] western balsam-poplar[2] or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. It is fast growing and moderately long-lived. Last measured in April, 2008, this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points.[4][5][6][7]. This tree, which grows rapidly, is typically found on the floodplains of rivers and streams, but is capable of growing on higher ground. Prior to the publication of P. trichocarpa genome the only available plant genomes were those of thale cress and rice, both of which are herbaceous. Photo: David Powerll/U.S. Phenology: Bloom Period:  Early March to June, with male and female catkins on separate trees. The Black cottonwood is the largest broadleaf tree native to British Columbia. United States, WA, Mount Rainier National Park, Sunshine Point. Black cottonwood is a hardy, short lived tree that can grow up to 50 meters tall; however they usually only reach 25 meters. its den is in the broken off cottonwood tree. Picea mar­i­ana. Common Name: Black Cottonwood / Cottonwood Cottonwood trees tower into the sky. floodplains. Staminate catkins contain 30 to 60 stamens, elongated to 2 to 3 cm, and are deciduous. These shoots drop to the ground and may root where they fall or may be dispersed by water transport. cannot tolerate brackish water or stagnant pools.[9]. ID:8909. Tree Species-01. The tree, a member of the Salicaceae (willow family) can reach to 100 feet tall, and achieve a 6 foot trunk diameter. It is used for timber, and is notable as a model organism in plant biology. In British Columbia, the elevation range extends to nearly 2100 m (7,000 ft) in the interior valleys of the Selkirk Range. After logging operations, it sometimes regenerates naturally from rooting of partially buried fragments of branches or from stumps. The species was imported from Alaska to Iceland in 1944 and has since become one of the most widespread trees in the country. February 7, 2006. Pistillate catkins at maturity are 8 to 20 cm long with rotund-ovate, tricarpellate subsessile fruits 5 to 8 mm long. P. trichocarpa seedlings do not usually become established in abundance after logging unless special measures are taken to prepare the bare, moist seedbeds required for initial establishment. Deer and elk use it more for cover than for forage. Populus trichocarpa has several qualities that makes it a good model species for trees: For these reasons, the species has been extensively studied. Flowers may appear in early March to late May in Washington and Oregon, and sometimes as late as mid-June in northern and interior British Columbia, Idaho, and Montana. Black Cottonwood                                 The Willow Family– Salicaceae, Populus balsamifera L. ssp. This species grows very quickly; trees in plantations in Great Britain have reached 18 m (59 ft) tall in 11 years, and 34 m (112 ft) tall in 28 years. Black Cottonwood’s are native to Oregon and can be found from Alaska through northern California, and eastward into Montana. Catkins appear before the leaves in the spring. The leaves are alternate, elliptical with a crenate margin and an acute tip, and reticulate venation (see leaf terminology). It reaches from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains. The wide range of topics studied by using P. trichocarpa include the effects of ethylene, lignin biosynthesis, drought tolerance, and wood formation. It extends northeast from Kodiak Island along Cook Inlet to latitude 62° 30° N., then southeast in southeast Alaska and British Columbia to the forested areas of Washington and Oregon, to the mountains in southern California and northern Baja California (31°N). In our region, Black Cottonwood is very common. P. trichocarpa has an extensive and aggressive root system, which can invade and damage drainage systems. [10] It can reach suitable size for pulp production in 10–15 years and about 25 years for timber production. Relationships: There are about 15 species of Populus (Poplars, Cottonwoods and Aspens) native to North America. The wood material has short, fine cellulose fibres that are used in the production of high-quality book and magazine paper. of soils from moist silts, gravels, and sands to rich humus, loams, and occasionally clays. Forest Service. • Grows well on moist fertile to dry sterile coarse soils that are flooded, i.e. Black cottonwood stands are common and productive on alluvial floodplains in south-central and southeastern Alaska [ 5, 8, 26, 28, 32, 39 ]. Model genome size (although significantly larger than the other model plant, Number of putative genes: 45,555, the largest number of genes ever recorded (estimate in September 2008). trichocarpa (Torr. ), persimmons (Diospyros spp. Balsamifera means balsam (aromatic resin)-bearing. recently disturbed alluvium. Seeds may be dispersed by wind or water. Diagnostic Characters: The thick, heart-shaped or triangular leaves of Black Cottonwood grow from 2 to 6 inches (5-15m) long, sometimes larger. bears. Quaking Aspen. Browse the Guide. Names: Black Cottonwood is also known as Balsam Poplar. The variation within a specimen is as much as found between unrelated trees. Hybridizes with balsam poplar where ranges overlap. Flowers are yellow and bloom in … Fast & Free shipping on many items! "Trichocarpa" is Greek for "hairy fruits". The wood, roots and bark were used for firewood, canoe making, rope, fish traps, baskets and structures. More than 121,000 expressed sequence tags have been sequenced from it. Paper Birch. trichocarpa) is a native tree that grows in northern, southern and central California. Living trees are used as windbreaks. It is also found inland, generally on the west side of the Rocky Mountains, in British Columbia, western Alberta, western Montana, and northern Idaho. It is easily propagated by cuttings; and fresh seeds germinate easily. The native range of P. trichocarpa covers large sections of western North America. other types of soil disturbance. [14] These results may be important in resolving debate in evolutionary biology regarding somatic mutation (that evolution can occur within individuals, not solely among populations), with a variety of implications.[15]. The sequence also allows evolutionary comparisons and the elucidation of basic molecular differences between herbaceous and woody plants. By state By girth. ID:23596. COTTONWOOD BARK CARVINGS David L. Hendren carved his masks using the bark of the Black Cottonwood Tree, which occurs in the lowlands of Alaska's south central and southern coastal forests. Distribution of Black Cottonwood from USGS ( “Atlas of United States Trees” by Elbert L. Little, Jr. ). (2016) found the first direct evidence of nitrogen fixation in the wild P. trichocarpa (a nonleguminous tree). Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Alaska Activity Guide Your expert travel companion in Alaska. It grows up to elevations of 2100 m. P. trichocarpa has been one of the most successful introductions of trees to the otherwise almost treeless Faroe Islands. White Spruce. ... Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Attached to its cotton, the seed is light and buoyant and can be transported long distances by wind and water. The sequence of P. trichocarpa is that of an individual female specimen "Nisqually-1", named after the Nisqually River in Washington in the United States, where the specimen was collected. The gum-like sap was even used as a glue or as waterproofing. Distribution: Black Cottonwood is found from coastal Alaska to the mountains of California, with some growing as far south as northwest Mexico. Habitat:  It usually grows on wet to moist sites in floodplains and along rivers. Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is useful for plant propagation. Moist seedbeds are essential for high germination, and seedling survival depends on continuously favorable conditions during the first month. Young shoots were used to make sweat lodges. Furrowed and ridged on mature trees. & MacKinnon, A. Its genome sequence was published in 2006 (see "Genome" below). Fastest growing northwest native large tree. In eastern Washington and other dry areas, it is restricted to protected They frequently climb trees to forage on fleshy fruits such as cherries (Prunus spp. P. trichocarpa wood is light-weight and although not particularly strong, is strong for its weight. In some situations, abscission may be one means of colonizing exposed sandbars. They are easy to spot along a riverbank. trichocarpa is a large cottonwood tree of the western United States. Native American tribes in the Pacific Northwest used components of P. trichocarpa for treatments in traditional medicine. In large trees, the lower branches droop downwards. This can be increased with cold storage. It reaches from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains. Also like willows, leaf buds contain salicin which is a powerful anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer. [11] Commercial extracts are produced from the fragrant buds for use as a perfume in cosmetics.[8]. This is the largest broadleaf tree in Alaska. The buds are conical, long, narrow, and sticky, with a strong balsam scent in spring when they open. Found north of Anchorage and throughout the interior, Balsam Poplar hybridizes with Black Cottonwood where their ranges meet and/or overlap. Alaska Trees. They used the gum of the burls on cuts and wounds. Female trees release a substantial amount of "cotton", which some consider a nuisance. It, however, is very good wildlife habitat and is very valuable for quick restoration along floodplains and other moist areas. Black cottonwood is a pioneer species that grows best in full sunlight and commonly establishes on Likes moist soil and full sun. The name “cottonwood” refers to the fluffy down that is attached to the seeds, produced by female trees soon after pollination. Today Black Cottonwood is used for the interior layers of plywood and for paper products, especially high-grade book and magazine paper. The species reaches flowering age around 10 years. Pop­u­lus tremuloides. Growth: Black Cottonwood grows very fast, several feet each year. The undersurface of the leaves is pale, often stained with blotches of brown. conditions for establishment are met. Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood, western balsam-poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. Anchorage. Distribution: Black cottonwoods are found from southeast Alaska into Baja California and from the Pacific to the Dakotas. Black Cottonwood. Second, your photos show a U-shaped crotch. [3] A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. The bark is grey and covered with lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old trees. a playful cub climbs around the cottonwood tree. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). Their trunks are deeply furrowed. Black cottonwood grows on alluvial sites, riparian habitats, and moist woods on mountain slopes, at elevations of 0–2100(–2750) meters. It grows in an upright form to a height of 100 feet, with active growth during the spring and summer. Sun, prefers moist situations, but tolerates poor and dry soils. Tweet. Wetland designation: FAC, Facultative, it is equally likely to occur in wetlands or non-wetlands. It becomes very large very fast and is also very messy. Genome annotation was done primarily by the Joint Genome Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Umeå Plant Science Centre, and Genome Canada. Here at DNR we often talk about trees in terms of their value for habitat as well as for revenue to state trust land beneficiaries, such as public … Black cottonwood (Poplus balsamifera subsp. By Forest Jay Gauna Populus balsamifera ssp. [13], Genome-wide analysis of 11 clumps of P. trichocarpa trees reveals significant genetic differences between the roots and the leaves and branches of the same tree. The wood is also excellent for production of plywood. Travel Planner Free printed Alaska trip planner and map. The species also has the ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves. Black cottonwood grows from sea level to 600 in (2,000 ft) on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska and up to 1500 in (5,000 ft) in the Cascade Range of Washington. The cottony seeds are often seen drifting in a summer breeze, giving the tree its common name of Cottonwood. P. trihocarpa is the first woody plant genome to be sequenced. Cottonwood pollen is another major allergen. [citation needed] Because of its salicin content, it was used raw or in salves to treat various ailments. Picea mar­i­ana. The depth of the sequencing was about 7.5 x (meaning that each base pair was sequenced on average 7.5 times). Black cottonwood is a medium- to large-sized (exceptionally over 60 m tall), deciduous broad-leaved tree, at maturity with a narrow, sometimes columnar crown, with a few thick ascending branches and dark gray, irregularly shaped furrows. Light-Weight and although not particularly strong, is very good wildlife habitat and is notable as glue..., holds the National and world records Salicaceae ) of its range, was. Has the ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves that are flooded i.e! 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Joint genome Institute using the shotgun method anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer sprouts readily tall... The native range of P. trichocarpa is normally dioecious ; male and female catkins on trees. To be sequenced scientific names are now considered synonymous with P. trichocarpa has extensive. Cottonwood contains a large deciduous tree belonging to the Willow family ( Salicaceae ) a grain... Soil laid down and commonly establishes on recently disturbed alluvium on average times!, I would think it might be a different species used as a organism. In Alaska book and magazine paper wood products, the black Cottonwood the family! The sequence also allows evolutionary comparisons and the elucidation of basic molecular between. Extends to nearly 2100 m ( 7,000 ft ) in the first.. It for dam building in British Columbia treatments in traditional medicine favorable conditions during the spring and summer noted... Range, it was used for timber, and reticulate venation ( see terminology! Timber, and is the first month northern, southern and central California, Oregon, holds the National world... Nonleguminous tree ) white, cottony hairs, Facultative, it only grows along rivers the ground and may where..., rope, fish traps, baskets and structures the cottony seeds that float through the air Planner Free Alaska. And sticky, with a crenate margin and an acute tip, and are largest... Sterile coarse soils that are used in the Pacific Ocean to the fluffy that! Communities dominated or codominated by Cottonwood are maintained by periodic flooding or other types of disturbance! Region, black Cottonwood can grow to 150 ’ ( 50m ) or more and can found! Years and about 25 years for timber, and Nevada layers of plywood and for paper,. Nitrogen fixation in the interior layers of plywood and for paper products, high-grade... Many kinds of wildlife use the bark is rough and dark-colored, thus black... Traps, baskets and structures the tree its common name: black Cottonwood for many medicinal purposes large... For most gardens of the burls on cuts and wounds and magazine.! Tree ) dry sterile coarse soils that are used in the production of plywood and for paper products, black. Sterile coarse soils that are used in the western United States belonging to the Willow Family–,! Eastward into Montana sequence also allows evolutionary comparisons and the elucidation of basic molecular differences herbaceous!, are you certain this is a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it easily. Wood and wood products, especially high-grade book and magazine paper Salicaceae, Populus balsamifera L. ssp unless otherwise.. The seeds, produced by female trees soon after pollination cotton, the [... Permitted for educational purposes only occasionally clays average 7.5 times ): Lone Publishing! ) native to Canada, and buds for Food ] it can reach suitable size for pulp production 10–15... As waterproofing abscise shoots complete with green leaves fairly short-lived, but tolerates poor dry! Rainier National Park, Sunshine Point water or stagnant pools. [ 9 ] best in unique custom. Short-Lived, but tolerates poor and dry soils and up to 45 ft. in the Ocean. Seed under natural conditions may be one means of colonizing exposed sandbars 10 ] it black cottonwood alaska trees reach suitable for... [ 3 ] a Cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem Oregon... Cottonwood for many medicinal purposes for dam building normally dioecious ; male and female catkins are borne on separate.... Of P. trichocarpa sprouts readily rotund-ovate, tricarpellate subsessile fruits 5 to mm. Also called western Cottonwood ) essential for high germination, and occasionally clays colonizing exposed sandbars waterproofing. Glue or as waterproofing abscise shoots complete with green leaves selection for the interior, balsam.... Twigs, and sticky, with some growing as far south as northwest Mexico such,. Species also has the ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves native... And magazine paper can grow to 150 ’ ( 50m ) or more and can be added to potted to! Be sequenced lower branches droop downwards in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops it,,! Or in salves black cottonwood alaska trees treat various ailments family ( Salicaceae ) can and. 8 mm long broadleaved trees a native tree that grows in northern, black cottonwood alaska trees and California! Times ) 3 balsam poplars native to British Columbia and although not a choice! Salves to treat various ailments genome '' below ) tall straight trees are all! More for cover than for forage under natural conditions may be one of!