Mauritius: A weed very competitive in vegetables and sugarcane, it is known to have allelopathic properties. It is also found in the western and southwestern regions, but only at medium elevation (400-800 m). Uromycesrumicis Gastrophysaviridula Plantpathogen Beetle USA USA Tribulusterrestris Microlarinuslareynii and M.lypriformis ", "Harmful and beneficial aspects of Parthenium hysterophorus: an update", "Integrated weed management for parthenium", "Campaign launched for biological control of a dangerous weed", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parthenium_hysterophorus&oldid=993551050, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 05:15. 2009; Ratheesh Narayanan, Fl. , Contact with the plant causes dermatitis and respiratory malfunction in humans, and dermatitis in cattle and domestic animals. Very common in wastelands, an aggressive invader. D K Ved, Suma Tagadur Sureshchandra, Vijay Barve, Vijay Srinivas, Sathya Sangeetha, K. Ravikumar, Kartikeyan R., Vaibhav Kulkarni, Ajith S. Kumar, S.N. Native of America, now a pantropical weed. V.S. Chowdhery in Hajra et al., Fl. Enumerates geographic entities where the taxon lives. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. South Africa: Widely disttributed to Mpumalanga, KwaZulu Natal and Limpopo province. 7 Parthenium hysterophorus L., Flora de Nicaragua,Tropicos.org, 2009 Accessed February 2018. Parthenium hysterophorus : a new weed in upland rice fields of the Chhattisgarh Plains (India).International Rice Research Notes (IRRN).25.1:34. Flowering from November-March. It is uncommon, it grows on disturbed areas, shaded and slightly moist. Leaves on the upper branches decrease in size and are alsâ¦ It usually grows 2 to 4.5 ft. in height. Parthenium hysterophorus is part of the IUCN list of '100 most invasive species among the world' and belongs to the A2 list of EPPO. It is present from the late 19th century. Includes realm (e.g Terrestrial etc) and climatic information (e.g Boreal); also includes requirements and tolerances; horizontal and vertical (altitudinal) distribution. Sumanth, Noorunissa Begum, Sugandhi Rani, Surekha K.V., and Nikhil Desale. India 12: 403. 1997; Sasidh., Fl. It invades sugarcane and banana fields. P. hysterophorus is an annual erected plant of green - whitish colour. 1998; Sivar.  It is a common invasive species in India, Australia, and parts of Africa. New Caledonia: Species widespread and sometimes invasive. Parthenium hysterophorus is a very common ruderal species, a weed of pastures and industrial crops. A general description, with any kind of information about the taxon. Hierarchy contributed by the species page author, Accessed through GBIF data portal, GBIF Backbone Taxonomy, Default IBP taxonomic classification, based on Catalogue of Life. Its main goal is summarize the most relevant or attractive characteristics of this taxon to the general public. The set forms a great crowdedly inflorescence of small white heads. Includes cues, strategies, restraints, rates. The name Parthenium is an evolution of the Greek name for the plant, ÏÎ±ÏÎ¸ÎÎ½Î¹Î¿Î½ (parthenion). DESCRIPTION . Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herb, woody, aggressive invasive alien weed sp. May also be referred to include anatomy. As an invader it first appeared as a contaminant in imported wheat. It is present from the late 19th century. 1991. 1990; Vajr., Fl. Proc. Parthenium hysterophorus is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae. It can invade freshly worked cultivated soil and disturbed pastures, degraded areas (stock yard, water points). It has a strong harmfulness. It has now distributed in several tropical and subtropical parts of the world . General description of the sites where the species is found (ecosystem, forest, environment or microhabitat). Generally the application of herbicides is expensive and often harmful; Paraquat sprays may be applied while the weeds are young. Includes Invasiveness. 2002; Sunil & Sivadasan, Fl. Does not include altitudinal distribution, which is covered under Habitat. It also frequently causes pollen allergies. The best-established control organism so far is a beetle native to Mexico, Zygogramma bicolorata, which was first introduced to India in 1984. The upper leaves are entire or almost, of size decreasing towards the summit of stem and passing in the simple bracts of inflorescences. 1. Chemically, it is controlled by 2,4-D. Control of P. hysterophorus from the current efforts of the communities and the currently available biological control agents is unlikely to be adequate. Parthenium hysterophorus description and ecology from GISD (ISSG) A species description and information about the ecology of Parthenium hysterophorus as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Description Parthenium hysterophorus, a native plant of tropical and subtropical South and North America, has spread to East Africa, where it is invasive and threatens food security, biodiversity, and human and animal health. Pl. Pl. Impact evaluation of weed biological control agents 2008|, "Contact dermatitis to parthenium simulating lichen nitidus", "Transforming an obnoxious weed into gold! Mature stems are greenish and longitudinally grooved, covered in small stiff hairs and become much branched at maturity. Crop Research (Hisar), 19(2), 221-224. The ligule is white, with 5 teeth, long from 0,5 to 0,7mm and wide from 0,5 to 1mm. It is one of the most troublesome weed among Parthenium hysterophorus Linnaeus, Sp. (2000). Since the 1950s it is considered a major invasive weed in India (5 million hectares) and Australia (cost $ 17 million) and throughout the Pacific - Indian Ocean including New Caledonia. Image of Parthenium taken in Lionspruit â note the height and density This was removed manually. Light infestations of Parthenium hysterophorus in cultivated fields may be hoed or weeded by hand if labour is available at acceptable cost. Madagascar: The manual control P. hysterophorus can be done by pulling. Also includes information referring to territorial extension of the individual or group in terms of its activities (feeding, mating, etc. low to medium elevation up to 500 m, in the newly cleared fields. Panicle terminal crowded, with the numerous hemispherical pentagonal capitulums, from 3 to 5mm in diameter and in short hail peduncle from 3 to 20mm in lengths. It is now widespread (except ultrabasic substrate), common in coastal towns and abandonned areas. Comprising its size, shape, texture and orientation. Among other allelopathic effects of the species, the presence of Parthenium pollen grains inhibits fruit set in tomato, brinjal, beans, and a number of other crop plants. The whole plant is allergenic especially pollen grains of this plant are responsible for several allergic diseases.  As an invader it first appeared as a contaminant in imported wheat. At first pubescent hispid in brief and long hairs then glabrescent, rough, simple in the base, branched in the fertile portion. Distribution notes: Exotic. et al., Shola For. Habit: An erect, well-branched herb, upto 1m. Description: "Taprooted annual herbs 3-10 dm tall; stems unbranched in lower part, branched in upper part, longitudinally striate, hirsute. Palghat Dist. The Plants Database includes the following 10 species of Parthenium . Distributed to the Caribbean, Africa, India, Asia and Australasia. Powered by the open source Biodiversity Informatics Platform. It can reduce by 90% the pasture carrying capacity. The angiosperms diversity was studied in Doaba region of Punjab, India. The pollen grains of Parthenium hysterophorus invades disturbed land, including roadsides. After the leaves dry and fall off, the stem is used for broomsticks and fuel. pastures, degraded areas (stock yard, water points). Figure 18.1Parthenium hysterophorus Mature stems are greenish and longitudinally grooved, covered in small stiff hairs (hirsute), and become much branched at maturity. Parthenium hysterophorus Santa Maria feverfew This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. The present study provides a taxonomic account of the angiosperms of Sonbhadra District in Uttar Pr... Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn grows almost throughout the year if the soil is damp. This s. It prefers soils with neutral or basic pH. Malappuram Dist. It is native to the American tropics. It usually grows 0.5-1.5 m tall, but can occasionally reach up to 2 m or more in height. Pl. 8 Parthenium hysterophorus L., Flora of Panama (WFO),Tropicos.org, 2013 Accessed February 2018. Floristic diversity of the Indian Cardamom Research Institute campus, Myladumpara, Western Ghats, Indi... Angiosperm diversity in Doaba region of Punjab, India, Angiosperm diversity of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh: a checklist. Cotyledons sessile rounded from 3 to 4mm in length. 1. Cylindrical, full, more or less fluted in striking longitudinal lines corresponding in the continuation of the central nerve of leaves. 1999; Sasidh., Fl. Oudhia, P. (2000). It has a depressive allelopathic effect on other species. It sometimes develops in young sugarcane fields, without forming real populations. , It is being investigated as a means of removing heavy metals and dyes from the environment, control of aquatic weeds, commercial enzyme production, an additive in manure for biogas production, as a biopesticide, and as green manure and compost. Parthenium hysterophorus is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae. Description: Parthenium hysterophorus invades disturbed land, including roadsides. Parthenium hysterophorus is a species uncommon but locally abundant. Every head is carried by a peduncle. Habit: Herb It is branched and with the stems meanly hairy. GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 475. Chemical : Glyphosate at 1.0% under non cropped area. Margin is profoundly lobed, in lobes linear- lanceolated and with irregular teeth. Parthenium hysterophorus: a curse for the bio-diversity of Chhattisgarh plains of MP. The internal flowers are numerous, male, cylindrical, white - ivory to yellowish. It is native to the American tropics. 376. the planting of beneficial plants that can suppress the growth of P. hysterophorus; Khan et al., 2013, 2014) as well as classical biological control agents, including insects (e.g. 988. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. The lower leaves are relatively large and are deeply divided. Nepal : The species was first recorded in Nepal in 1967, but has shown significant population expansion over the last 20 years. 387. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Stems and leaves are hairy. Weed Research. (1998). Several species that feed on the weed are variously in use or on trial in various countries. "A weed of croplands, pastures, and natural and recreation areas. Covers ranges, e.g., a global range, or a narrower one; may be biogeographical, political or other (e.g., managed areas like conservencies); endemism; native or exotic. The species reproduces by seed and has vigorous growth. Abstract: Parthenium hysterophorus is an obnoxious weed spreading all over India. & N.P. The most satisfactory and promising means of practical long-term control are biological. Wayanad Dist. A textual diagnostic description of the species that is not necessarily structured. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS- AN ECONOMICAL TOOL TO INCREASE THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY Lalitha P1*, Shivani K1, Rama Rao R1 Research Paper Parthenium hysterophorus is a well known weed that is a serious problem in agriculture.  In India, it is locally known as carrot grass, congress grass or Gajar Ghas. Pl. Florets dissimilar; outer florets 5, rayed, female; corolla ligulate; limb short, entire; inner florets male; corolla tubular, white; anthers obtuse at base. However, other species that appear to have established usefully include a leaf-mining moth, Bucculatrix parthenica; a stem-galling weevil, Conotrachelus albocinereus; and a root-boring moth Carmenta ithacae. Best supported on Google Chrome, Firefox 3.0+, Internet Explorer 8.0+, Safari 4.0+, Opera 10+. The meager amount of work is available on chemical nature Parthenium hysterophorusis a much-branched, short-lived, upright, aggressive ubiquitous annual herbaceous plant. A known allergen of human beings and cattle, causes asthma, eczema and contact dermatitis. Heads in terminal, lax panicles; bracts 2-seriate, to 3 x 1.5 mm, ovate, obtuse, ciliate. Indigenous Information: The whole plant is harvested after full growth and tied in bundles, kept in sunlight. You are viewing a profile that is currently in draft. In India, it is locally known as carrot grass, congress grass or Gajar Ghas. Native of tropical America, widely naturalized in the disturbed lands, agricultural fields etc. Technology partner Strand Life Sciences, Flowering class: Dicot ARC-PPRI Fact Sheets on Invasive Alien Plants and their Control in South Africa|, CRC for Australian Weed Management: Best Practice Guide. It occurs up to an altitude of 800 m. Description from the Flora of North America online. Puccinia abrupta var. It has negative impacts on biodiversity and agricultural production worldwide. V.S. Parthenium hysterophorus is a much-branched, short-lived (annual), upright (erect) herbaceous plant that forms a basal rosetteof leaves during the early stage of growth. Parthenium hysterophorus is a much-branched, short-lived ... Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Parthenium weed) has been classified as â¦ Example: tree, shrubs, herbs. Nepal : As no single measure has been effective in managing this weed, an integrated weed management approach has been recommended (Dhileepan, 2009; Adkins & Shabbir, 2014). The name is possibly derived from the Greek word ÏÎ±ÏÎ¸ÎÎ½Î¿Ï (parthenos) which means "virgin".. Parthenium or Gajar Ghans is the most common invasive species in India. 1753. é¶è¶è yin jiao ju Herbs, annual, 30-120 cm tall. Stud. The pollen from the flower believed to cause asthma for human-beings and animals. In various countries, such as Australia and South Africa, several other biocontrol agents have been released or are under evaluation. Parthenium hysterophorus Zygogramma Bicolorata Epiblemastrenuana Conotrachelssp. Kerala 40. Miscellaneus: notes attached to the taxon information, Notes: Plains to Low Altitude, Naturalized, Native of Tropical America. Erect herbs. Parthenium hysterophorus is an annual herb that aggressively colonises disturbed sites. Leaf blade ovate to elliptic, 3-18 × 1-5(-9) cm, pinnately (1 or)2-lobed, ultimate lobes lanceolate to linear, 3-50 × 2-15 mm, both surfaces sparsely to densely scaberulose and gland-dotted. Leaves alternate, deeply pinnatisect, lobes 7-10 x 1 cm, oblong-lanceolate, apex acute, base decurrent, entire, pubescent. Lower leaves in a basal rosette, these deciduous at maturity and stem leaves remaining, 3-20 cm long, 2-10 cm wide, bipinnatifid or pinnatifid. It sometimes develops in young sugarcane fields, without forming real populations. It infests pastures and farmland, causing often disastrous loss of yield, as reflected in common names such as famine weed. Continent Country State Status; Africa: Comoros: Present, no details: view... Africa: Egypt: Present, no details [Invasive] view... Africa: Eritrea: Present, no details Stud. It is a prohibited invasive weed, it must be eradicated. 2009. Can include ecosystem services. Found in the plains from the coast, upto 1400m, less with increasing altitude. Partâ¦ that is native to America and now spread rapidly and extensively throughout the world. Leafeatingbettle, Stemgallinginsect, Stemgallinginsect Mexico Australia Australia Rumexspp. The upper face is hairless, the lower face with whitish pubescent.  It also is responsible for bitter milk disease in livestock when their fodder is polluted with Parthenium leaves.. It infests pastures and farmland, causing often disastrous loss of yield, as reflected in common names such as famine weed. [This may also include impacts on ecosystems should the organism decline or be extirpated], Known or potential benefits of the species for humans, at a direct economic level, as instruments of education, prospecting, eco-tourism, etc. 2017 ; Korres 2018 ). Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount (biomass), number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems. Relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Among these weeds, Parthenium hysterophorus (Family: Asteraceae) is commonly found and is one of the notorious weeds in the world (Picman and Picman 1984). However, benefits to ecosystems not specific to humans are best treated under Risk statement (what happens when the organism is removed). Human health impacts have been observed in Nepal, similar to other regions where the species is invasive. Pinnately veined. First leaves simple, arranged in rosette, petiolated, with a lamina profoundly lobed, toothed, slightly decurrently along the petiole. & Cronquist, Arthur J. Venugopal, B. S. Somashekhar, M.V. Nerves prominent in the lower face. & N.P. 2: 988. Life cycles are treated in the field for Life Cycle. It is a common invasive species in India, Australia, and parts of Africa. The Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (RTR) located in semi-arid zones of western India is popularly known... Chamaesyce sebastinei (Binojk. (Asteraceae), Weed diversity in rice crop fields of Fatehgarh Sahib District, Punjab, India, https://indiabiodiversity.org/biodiv/species/show/33229. Annuals, (10â)30â120+ cm. They are quickly caduceus. Various management strategies, including chemical, cultural, mechanical, and biological, have been used against weeds around the world (Melander et al. It is often more abundant in vegetables. Comoros: Parthenium hysterophorus is a species uncommon but locally abundant. Annual herb with a deep taproot growing up to two metres tall; Growing in most soil types, particularly disturbed areas; Erect stem that becomes woody and develops many branches with age; Pale green leaves, deeply lobed and â¦ FRLHT's ENVIS Centre on Medicinal Plants, Bengaluru. Dr. Chandra Barooah & Iftikher Ahmed (2014) Assam Science Technology and Environment Council. Common names include Santa-Maria, Santa Maria feverfew, whitetop weed, and famine weed. The two with the greatest effect seem to be the beetle Zygogramma bicolorata and a stem-galling moth Epiblema strenuana. Invasive Alien Plant Species in the Roadside Areas of Jorhat , Assam : Their Harmful Effects an... Pollination ecology of Synedrella nodiflora (l.) Gaertn. This species has large water requirements. Seasonal migration and reproduction are usually treated separately. Deep and thick pivot from where leave secondary roots. It prefers soils with neutral or basic pH. These changes will not be visible to public users until the profile is completed and the draft is released. May be referred to as or include habit, defined as the characteristic mode of growth or occurrence associated to its environment, particularly for plants. Rediscovery of Chamaesyce sebastinei (Binojk. , McConnachie AJ, Strathie LW, et al. 1990; H.J. Petiole and lamina with hispid hairs brief and long mixed. Achenes 2 x 1.5 mm; pappus absent or with two short hooks. Describes biorhythms - those states or conditions characterised by regular repetition in time, whether on the scale of seconds, hours, days, or seasons. Alappuzha Dist. Parambikulam WLS 171. Of those eleven, nine appear to have established in various regions. partheniicola (Jackson) Parmelee). It produces ... A total of 31 species of weeds belonging to 11 families was collected from rice fields in Fatehgarh... Dr. N Sasidharan (Dr. B P Pal Fellow), Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, G. Renu, Sanjana Julias Thilakar, D. Narasimhan, Centre for Floristic Research, Department of Botany, Madras Christian College, Tambaram, species, a weed of pastures and industrial crops. 218. It since has become widespread and well-established on the subcontinent. Raju (Angiosperms: Euphorbia... Flora of Fergusson College campus, Pune, India: monitoring changes over half a century. The summit of the lamina is attenuated. 2011 51(1) From. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Leaf blades ovate to elliptic, 30â180+ × 10â50 (â90+) mm, (1â)2-pinnately lobed (ultimate lobes lanceolate to linear, 3â50 × 2â15 mm), faces sparsely to densely scabrellous and gland-dotted (seldom with additional erect hairs 1â2 mm). However, fortuitously, two biological control agents have arrived in the country by natural means and are now being used voluntarily by communities, along with physical means, to manage the weed. 9 "Gleason, Henry A. Describes the general appearance of the taxon; e.g body plan, shape and color of external features, typical postures. Description of â¦ A number of control measures, such as cultural, physical, chemical and biological techniques, have been adopted in combination to manage P. hysterophorus in other invaded countries (Adkins & Shabbir, 2014). Parthenium hysterophorus L., Sp. ... Parthenium hysterophorus Linnaeus, Sp. In any event, the source must be explicitly quoted. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Kottayam Dist.