Lawrence-Wilkes, L., and Ashmore, L., (2014) The Reflective Practitioner in Professional Education, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Emotions can feature strongly in people's reflections - especially in organisations which suffer from 'blame culture' - i.e., where people are quick to blame others or external reasons for poor outcomes, rather than take personal responsibility and concentrate Reflective practice Further contributions to the development of a is a key determinant in the successful and effective model of relationship-based practice have been pro- application of relationship-based practice. In reflecting on experiences, we can understand how we learn, start to observe This approach is very much aligned with notions of metacognition, (awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes). • Learning journal • Lesson evaluations • Observations • Student dialogue She defines separately and connects Reflective Practice and reflexivity as 'cognitive states of mind', and uses narrative accounts to examine actions of The items are also a checklist of the main elements within Reflective Practice, enabling it to be effective and sustaining. He presented this 'insight' as reflective thought, which equates to the 'reflective observation' stage in Kolb's learning cycle. The justification for reasons for chosen approach is offered with evidence. For example, Reflective Practice might also be called, and is synonymous with or similar to: Increasingly these principles, terminology, and underpinning theory are defined and conveyed within the term 'Reflective Practice' and its supporting framework of terminology and application. Nursing Standard 9 (45): 31–7. Reflective practice is important not only to do our work but to understand why we do it in a particular way.. If however we think more proactively, more deliberate reflection can generate conclusions and actions for making future improvements, preventing repeated mistakes, and other positive change. How do we sustain ourselves and keep going, when the going gets rough? With the support of her mentor and co-author, Dr Lyn Ashmore, Linda published In the diagram's context, here are definitions of terms not already explained or self-explanatory: The Lawrence-Wilkes/Ashmore model argues for: Knowledge and experience are interpreted and analysed through the filter of perception and context, using reflective activities to obtain new insights for independent thinking and action. Crucially here, reflection is seen as more than impulsive thinking or day-dreaming with no purpose. book for teachers titled 'How We Think', in which he described critical thinking as reflective thought, moving reflection beyond contemplation. The History of Sexuality Volume 2, Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, pp. (2000) Transforming teaching practice: becoming the critically reflective teacher, Reflective Practice, 1(3), 293-307. These powerful implications for learning suggest that the reflective practitioner can London: Bloomsbury. Practicing reflection can help us answer these questions and others throughout our lives and careers. We usually reflect to a degree about an event when it happens or very quickly afterwards, however by reviewing it later usually we can see it differently, and discover different feelings about it. Dewey supported the idea of Her work involves research and scholarship in higher education, and teacher training in the third sector. agrees that insightful experience can trigger changes in outlook, necessary for critical Reflective Practice. our mood and attitudes distort from a more normal evenly balanced viewpoint. His seminal work 'The Reflective Practitioner' (1983) focused on professional Reflective Practice and the role of the reflective practitioner. I make image or audio records / interpretations of events / challenges. Kolb proposed that if we become better at using all the stages of the learning cycle, notably including reflecting on experience, we will become better life-long learners. Personal relative reactions and feelings, and other. Reflective practice enhances traditional forms of knowledge for nursing practice by finding different approaches to procedures. Understand our own strengths and weaknesses, and become better learners. as to reduce spam). Reflective practice involves throwing back thoughts and memories. Flexibility is essential in an approach that generally is an alternative to practices that are more didactic or directive. I talk to others about events and behaviour after they happen. He regarded critical reflection as vital for promoting learning and self-assessment, enabling us to identify and evaluate our skills and development needs. The following various definitions convey their own distinct meanings, and also assist the reader in developing a quick general appreciation of Reflective Practice as a whole. theory drawn from practical experience and applied back to practical action - a loop of reflection and action, for learning and development. This requires a reflective approach that accepts and respects diverse perspectives, supported by evidence, and produces shared and inclusive knowledge. For example, Reflective Practice is highly relevant and helpful towards Continuous Professional Development (CPD). I make decisions about events as they happen. Human self-reflection - "...the capacity of humans to exercise introspection and the willingness to learn more about their fundamental nature, purpose and essence. or technical writing, when describing or reporting on reflective methods and activities. I research/investigate issues to solve problems. Kitchener, K. (1983) 'Cognition, Metacognition and Epistemic Cognition' Human Development, 26, 222-223. Encourage and plan development of our capabilities. We can use Reflective Practice for our own development and/or to help others develop. Reflexivity - "Finding a way to stand outside ourselves to get a more objective view of ourselves..." Kitchener, 1983. her research into how Reflective Practice can be used as a learning tool. Within his 'lens' theory, he suggests we reflect on our practice [work/life experiences] through other lenses, not only from our own perspective but from multiple perspectives; and including reflecting on theory. A famous study on reflective practice in an eLearning environment revealed three main types of reflection triggers that can be introduced to encourage reflective practice. Heron, a pioneer in the development of participatory methods in the social sciences, describes the theory and practice of the method in his 1996 book, Co-operative Inquiry: research into the human condition. Reflective practice is undertaken not just to revisit the past but to guide future action. Reflective Practice is a modern term, and an evolving framework, for an ancient method of self-improvement. Having empathy can help us to see beyond our own actions, feelings and motivations to imagine how another person might be feeling; what their different views and opinions might be; and how these factors can influence the situation. I observe events and situations that involve me carefully. It is a set of ideas that can be used alongside many other concepts for training, learning, personal development, and self-improvement. Here's a much simplified presentation of the above, to show the main differences between these terms/definitions more clearly: Please note that the table above is an extremely concise summary, and is therefore very much open to debate. Kant wrote the 'Critique of Reason' in 1781, which supported ideas for a scientific logical and rational thinking and experience how your mood and perceptions alter. Transactional Analysis, and its underpinning theory - offer very relevant details as to why and how our emotions can become heightened, so that to very powerful effect. attention to power and relationships in aid. process of metacognition, as being: "...To monitor our own learning, to become aware of the limits of our knowledge, and to become aware of our own values, assumptions, and expectations, and how they affect our behaviour and relationships..." The nature of thought is obviously personal, being the product of our own brain, so our own thinking tends to be subjective to some degree. When keeping a reflective journal, these tips may be useful: More details on these and other tips can be found in Jenny Moon’s 2004 book A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning. our reactions to a pressure for change. Parts VIII and IX of Ch1 Transcribed by Andy Blunden. There are a maximum 60 points available (5 sections, each of 6 questions = 30 questions, max 2pts each). I am free of negative influence by others. ! imaginings. I write notes which I review (e.g., diary, journal). Broad contemplation to question and examine knowledge, beliefs and actions for change. This might be simply standing rather than sitting, or moving to a different part of the room, or relocating greater distances. publish it or replicate it online. The use of this material is free for self-development, developing others, research, and organizational improvement. Reflective Practice Approaches are methods for people to learn from their own professional experiences. "Quiet thought or contemplation..." Collins Free Dictionary, 2003. connect personal and professional experiences to concepts and theories. Linda works in higher education in the north of England (at 2016). Critical reflection and enquiry as to outer experience and knowledge in the wider world. The discussion can then lead to collective agreement about future actions, changes and improvements. (2014). It is important to remember that having reflected about and understood a problem experience, that we evaluate our strengths/weaknesses and examine how these might affect the situation. teaching, notably 'Transforming Teaching Practice: Becoming the critically reflective teacher' (2000) and her book 'Authentic classroom management: Creating a learning community and building reflective practice' (2005). How does our position relate to the assumptions we make? For many people this is a natural and instinctive activity. We can probably all recall times in our lives when we have failed to reflect on a negative experience, consequently failed to consider options for change - and so a repeat of the mistake becomes inevitable. be misguided by apparent 'facts', and how this can have a huge effect on groups and society. Reflective practice, reflexivity and first person inquiry are used in research to explore issues of power and positionality and to make the role and assumptions of researchers more explicit and integral to their analysis. It enables: As such, Reflective Practice is a valuable methodology for using insights and learning from our past to: This offers benefits far beyond professional learning and development, for example extending to, and not limited to: Reflective Practice is essentially a very old and flexible concept, so it might be called other things. I look for relevant discussions (e.g., journal, article, conference). Organizational theory is mainly drawn from studies in the workplace, and specifically for example, the management theorist Meredith Belbin's research into management teams has created a body of knowledge and understanding about team Using Reflective Practice does not require any extra time.. For example, on our journey home from work or study, (especially on public transport when we don't need to concentrate on traffic) we can devote a little time to consider things that happened during the day. Each of us has a different individual outlook on the world. Here are some of the important historical conceptual interpretations that have helped to shape modern definitions and development of Reflective Practice, and its related concepts. This leads to developmental insight..." 5Reflectiv actice. This is particularly so where a group (or more than one person) is involved in Reflective Practice, so that reflections can be shared through discussion. This is a sophisticated and multi-faceted perspective Reflective Practice, and illustrates the evolution of the concept from its simple 'reflection' origins. For example, in the context of work-based Köhler, W. (1956) The mentality of apes. Goleman defined four social competencies for emotional growth, requiring self-reflection: Significantly in Goleman's work, the use of self-reflection should be regulated by the situation, which acknowledges the potential of reflective techniques to open deep personal issues, which may not be appropriate. transcend basic training and knowledge transfer, to instead facilitate real growth in people and in groups, and the fulfilment of human potential (US-English fulfillment). Within development and action research, the field of embodied learning and reflection is growing. This paper will present three case studies of reflective practice in the area of Creative Industries in higher education – Dance, Fashion and Music. 8-9. Roles, responsibilities, etc. Dewey used and defined the term Reflective Thought to mean: "...Active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief, or supposed form of knowledge, in light of grounds that support it, and the further conclusions to which it tends..." (Dewey 1910:6). Nudge theory, and the heuristics within it (especially the human tendency to place undue emphasis on 'evidence') are very useful in understanding why people can A liberating process that empowers me to make the changes needed to be more successful in life and relationships. by which adult thought is developed (1969). Foucault's ideas which is explained later in Reflective Practice objectivity. Disclaimer: Reliance on this material and any related provision is at your sole risk. See Linda's biography and contact details. I try to make objective sense of social media. "When I overcome my (many) barriers to learning and take on board new knowledge, I recognise new connections leading to new insights. John Dewey - John Dewey (1859-1952) was an American philosopher and educational reformer. Atkins, S and Murphy, K (1993) Reflective practice. I have necessary reflection knowledge, methods, and tools. which divides knowledge into three types: Instrumental, Communicative, and Emancipatory. (Original publication 1917 translated from 2nd revised ed by Ella Winter). Emotional Intelligence is popularly abbreviated to EQ. Many practices in this fiel… This in turn improves the quality of reflections; the examination of our own role and responsibilities in the situation; and the resulting judgments and decisions about future actions. In his model, learning to reflect in action (RIA) and look back on action (ROA) together This famous diagram shows four main stages of the learning process, as a continuous loop, in order of: David Kolb's Learning Styles concept has become a classical model representing the way we experience learning in our everyday life and work, and how we learn best in a practical sense, moving between active and reflective modes, and specifically through Truth seen as relative to place, time and context (subjective and rooted in social relationships). Like seeing stars in the night sky - it can be difficult to see them at first - we see just a black sky - but when our eyes become sensitive to the stars, we see more and more of them. It is usually easier (and therefore a natural tendency) to blame others for problems, than to consider our own responsibilities in a particular situation. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. scenarios? © Lawrence-Wilkes/Chapman, Businessballs 2015. I empathise with colleagues' / others' viewpoints. During 'hot' reviews, Reflective Practice among trainees is typically greatly influenced by their emotions and reactions to the event's pressures (as in the expression 'in the heat of the moment'). For example, a reasonable evidence-based reflection made in the 1970s would have concluded that a lack of computer skills was unlikely ever to be a serious obstacle to professional development (other than for computer scientists and programmers), whereas seeing another person's point of view (colleagues, manager, customer) and reflecting through the lens of theory (books, internet, TV, training and development). This can be demonstrated in the form of a learning log, diary, personal development portfolio, critical incident journal or perhaps a video diary. practitioners. She is contactable via Linkedin or directly via email: llawrencewilkes at gmail dot com (NB that's LLAWRENCEWILKES - sorry it's not a link, so Lawrence-Wilkes offers an example from her teaching experience of the deliberate scheduling of Reflective Practice so that it does not immediately follow an intense mood-altering event: Reflective Practice can be very useful for people learning/experiencing and reviewing very intense training activities such as self-defence (US-English defense), control and restraint techniques, etc. (Subjective and objective), Who, what, where, etc. Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-479BC) reportedly theorized: "By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest." Dr Kitchener is among several modern experts whose work extends the potential for Reflective Practice into societal consequences. Reflective practice is central to #GreatCoaching, providing a structure for coaches to consider how they can improve, developing themselves and their coaching practice. Reflecting The Johns model identifies particular areas of reflective practice: Describing an experience significant to the learner; Identifying personal issues arising from the experience; Pinpointing personal intentions; This builds on Dewey's (1933) concept of a purposeful reasoned process, delaying impulsive action to allow reflective judgement for action (US-English surface to find the truth about something, to draw conclusions for building new knowledge. I am sufficiently empowered personally/at work. So objectivity is important if Reflective Practice is to be very useful. Through reflection, educators can learn how to respond to their students’ needs in the most appropriate manner. A minute of breathing from the diaphragm – breathe in for a count of four, hold for a count of four and breathe out for a count of four – will also encourage a reflective brain state. The terms are used commonly in academic Reflective Practice is an ancient concept. We must be open to an evolving picture - to adopt a questioning stance, and to look beyond the surface to find truth. This type of 'attribution' of blame is very unhelpful for Reflective Practice. Köhler expanded the notion of simple 'trial and error' to suggest a mental process which visualises a problem and considers a solution before taking action, triggering 'aha' or 'light-bulb' moments. Kitchener, K.S. Generously supported by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. wider organizational improvement. this data from objective facts and evidence. Nevertheless subjective reflections can be valuable, provided we are aware of the dangers of bias. What are the paradigms that shape not just our own actions, but development as a whole? Reflector, critical reflector, non-reflector - Terms derived from the above, referring to people and the type/extent of reflection they use. Brookfield, S. D. (1995) Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. In other words, if we learn better and have better outcomes, we will be more successful Try it.. move to a different room or outdoors, What was important? Subjective feelings, instincts and personal reactions. It's long been observed that different learning methods produce different types of learning. In any situation, remember that emotions can significantly influence our perceptions about an experience, and timing (or reflection in relation to an event) can significantly influence our emotions. The Victorian Framework recognises the importance of reflective practice for highly effective professionals. He is seen as the founder of experiential education, linking reflection and action, so as to enable new experience and knowledge. "Awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes." Teachers’ pedagogical thinking informs their decision-making and behaviours in teaching situations. I have been using and adapting the Personal Learning Journal in my work inside organisations to build reflective practice. This relates strongly to ideas about empathy. For example, taking exercise is proven to reduce stress levels, How we think and feel about ourselves and situations in the, Human relationships - workplace, romance, parenting, etc, All sorts of teaching, training, coaching, counselling, etc, Self-analysis of our thoughts, feelings, actions, performance, etc, Planning/experimentation (and then back to Experience...), Discourse (communication) to validate insights from the critical reflection, Truth seen as universal (objective and rooted in evidence). It is closely linked to the concept … Reflective and reflexive practice Read More » This is for clarity and style - the term can be shown equally correctly as 'reflective practice', or 'Reflective practice'. This 'cold' review process enables Reflective Practice that is clearer, Bandura, A. You will see below the increasing sophistication of the ideas, from basic So we need to be more subtle in understanding what objectivity and subjectivity mean in relation to Reflective Practice. The event may also 'trigger' unconscious feelings that were embedded by trauma/stress in the past. Goleman, D. (1996) Emotional Intelligence. Jean Piaget - Jean Piaget (1896-1980), a Swiss psychologist, proposed the theory that children mature in their thinking through different stages of development. unreliable reflection, and also highlights how subjective reflections based on feelings can change according to mood, circumstances, time, etc. The process is essentially a cycle or loop, containing the following elements: (Diagram: Gibbs G [1988] Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Human self-reflection invariably leads to inquiry into the human condition and the essence of humankind as a whole. StudentShare. and relates strongly to the Johari Window principle and model of self/mutual-awareness. Note that 'hot' reviews can themselves be very valuable - provided people understand that they are 'hot', and that people focus on how emotions can affect the way we behave. Wikipedia, 2015. A systematic process of enquiry and problem solving, or. To support you to examine reflective practice further. Kolb's Learning Process Diagram. Wikipedia, 2015. And at a personal level, someone who reflects on may progress to take action for change in wider society. Critical thinking is more often aligned with logical reasoning and enquiry. About the way that I think, how and why (metacognition). Challenging the values and beliefs that form part of our self identity can challenge the very core of who we are. prompt us to see very easily that Reflective Practice is ultimately a tool by which society and civilization can improve, far beyond notions of individual self-improvement and professional development. One theory is selected to produce the reflective activities. vided by Sudbery (2002) and Turney & Tanner (2001). Essentially Reflective Practice is a method of assessing our own thoughts and actions, for the purpose ofpersonal learning and development. Professionals are under increased pressure: roles have become more complex, demand has increased, staffing levels have decreased and constant accountability is essential. She has written much on reflective learning and the use of learning journals to support professional development. Definitions also help establish firm meanings, for sharing ideas, adopting the methods, and understanding of how Reflective Practice can be used, alongside other developmental methodologies. Consider it as a quick aid to appreciating the different meanings. Reflective practice done well, is an easy and effective way to do this. And collective reflective communications (self plus others), More reliable personal reflection about our inner-self, and. So, like star-gazing, in adopting a critical attitude - we must allow the whole picture to develop. It will discuss the ways in which higher education teachers and students use multimodal approaches to expressing knowledge and reflective practice in such a context. Broad frameworks for reflection have been offered by theorists such as Benner and Wrubel (1989), Gibbs (1988), and Johns (2000). Reflect - "Turn one's thoughts back on, meditate on, ponder.." Chambers Etymology, 2000. Lawrence-Wilkes 'REFLECT' model of Reflective Practice, Look back, review, ensure intense experiences are reviewed 'cold'. New York: Heath and Co. Foucault, M. (1992) The Use of Pleasure. (1910) How We Think. Flavell defined metacognition as knowledge about cognition and control of cognition. Jossey-Bass. Many of us keep coming back to fundamental questions: how can I make a difference in the world? This simple but often-overlooked principle is reinforced by the old saying that: "If we keep on doing the same things, we are likely to get the same outcomes...", "If you always do what you've always done, then you'll always get what you've always got...". Part A (5.1 and 5.2) Task 1: Using the provided reading list, analyse the range of theories, principles and models of reflective practice.Research and select one to start producing your reflective activities.Begin with a justification of the reasons for selecting the chosen approach, supporting it … pp102-4 Lawrence-Wilkes, L., and Ashmore, L., (2014) The Reflective Practitioner in Professional Education, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. We might think about one particular event or situation, or a series of events or experiences: what went well, what might not have gone quite so well, and what we could have done better or different to make our day more successful. Reflective practice is a broad spectrum that covers many different understandings of and approaches to reflection (and practice). Which is from relevant experience and information. Michel Foucault - Michel Foucault (1926-1984) was a French philosopher and social theorist. on theory - combined with personal experience - offers a potent basis for inspiring new ideas to put into effect, to achieve continuous improvement and development. Curiosity. This paper argues that if relationship‐based practice is to become an established and effective approach to practice, practitioners need to develop their reflective capabilities.