Thirty states used the "income-shares" method, which is based on the income of both parents. Among the law's provisions is the ability of State IV-D agencies to send withholding orders to employers across State lines (see also Direct Income Withholding). Many aspects of the child support process can become really confusing, really quickly. To comply with federal funding requirements, most states require that an unmarried parent seeking AFDC identify the absent parent and cooperate in efforts to establish parentage and secure child support. The other parent is often called the non-custodial parent. The support can come in different forms, including: Child Support Enforcement (CSE) Agency Solomon-Fears, Carmen. "Trends in Child Custody Awards: Has the Removal of Maternal Preference Made a Difference?" The Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy 12 (winter): 289–309. Some may adhere to the Uniform Parentage Act, which states that courts must take into consideration, among other things, the age of the child, the financial resources and earning ability of the child, and the value of services contributed by the custodial parent. Complainant The meaning of a child also includes a non-biological child to whom one or both spouses stand in the place of parents, for example a step-child. However, if both parents have the children for at least 40% of the time, a situation known as “shared custody” or “joint physical custody”, it could affect the calculation of child support. Joint custody does not necessarily mean that the children live an equal amount of time with each parent. State laws vary on the definition of a parent. Several states used the elaborate Melson formula, which provides a basic subsistence level for each parent before determining the primary support needs of the children. n. court-ordered funds to be paid by one parent to the custodial parent of a minor child after divorce (dissolution) or separation. Financial support paid by a parent to help support a child or children of whom they do not have custody. The person alleged to be the father of the child but who has not yet been medically or legally declared to be the Legal Father. A court order directing a person to appear and bring forth any evidence as to why the remedies stated in the order should not be confirmed or executed. States have discretion in establishing child support orders and can choose to use an administrative or judicial process, or a combination of both. Monetary payments, in the form of a one-time payment, installments, or regular automatic withholdings from the NCP's income, or the offset of State and/or Federal tax refunds and/or administrative payments made to the NCP, such as Federal retirement benefits. The need for child support payments usually arises when one parent does not have physical custody of his or her child, so that parent's income does not benefit the child on a daily basis. from. Because the same resources cannot support two households at the same level as a single household, awards are often considered inadequate by the custodial parent and burdensome by the obligor. Although the sender will ordinarily be a child support Agency or the obligee, the obligor or any other person may supply an employer with an income withholding order. 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